Races & Subs

This page is to give an overview of all the sub-species and races of birds that have been documented or suspected (*), to of occurred in Britain & Ireland with both there English & scientific names given. This list was originally complied by British Birds and here it has been modified by the Identification & Ageing Series to fit that of the International Ornithological Congress (IOC), latest taxa report.

Tundra Swan:
Tundra Swan: Cygnus columbianus columbianus
Bewick's Swan: Cygnus columbianus bewickii

Greater White-fronted Goose:
Greenland White-fronted Goose: Anser albifrons flaviorostris
European White-fronted Goose: Anser albifrons albifrons
Taiga White-fronted Goose: Anser albifrons gambelli*

Greylag Goose:
Western Greylag Goose: Anser anser anser
Eastern Greylag Goose: Anser anser rubrirostris*

Snow Goose:
Lesser Snow Goose: Anser caerulescens caerulescens 
Greater Snow Goose:  Anser caerulescens atlanticus

Cackling Goose:
Cackling Goose: Branta minima minima
Richardson's Cackling Goose: Branta minima hutchinsii
Taverner's Cackling Goose: Branta minima taverneri

Greater Canada Goose:
Atlantic Canada Goose: Branta canadensis canadensis
Todd’s Canada Goose: Branta canadensis interior  
Lesser Canada Goose: Branta Canadensis parvipes

Brent Goose:
Pale-bellied Brent Goose: Branta bernicla hrota
Dark-bellied Brent Goose: Branta bernicla bernicla
Black Brant: Branta bernicla nigricans

Common Eider:
European Eider: Somateria mollissima mollissima
Northern Eider: Somateria mollissima borealis
Dresser’s Eider: Somateria mollissima dressri

White-winged Scoter:
American White-winged Scoter: Melanitta deglandi deglandi
Stejneger's Scoter: Melanitta deglandi stejnegeri

Red-necked Grebe:
European Red-necked Grebe: Podiceps grisegena grisegena
Holbøll’s (Or American) Red-necked Grebe: Podiceps grisegena holboellii

Great Cormorant:
Atlantic Cormorant: Phalacrocorax carbo carbo
Continental Cormorant: Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis

European Shag:
Northern Shag: Phalacrocorax aristotelis aristotelis
Mediterranean Shag: Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii*

Great White Egret:
European Great White Egret: Ardea alba alba
American Great White Egret: Ardea alba egretta*  

Wilson's Storm Petrel:
Northern Wilson's Storm Petrel: Oceanites oceanicus oceanicus
Southern Wilson's Storm Petrel: Oceanites oceanicus exasperatus

Common Gull:
European Common Gull: Larus canus canus
Russian Common Gull: Larus canus heinei

European Herring Gull:
British Herring: Larus argentatus argenteus
Scandinavian Herring Gull: Larus argentatus argentatus

American Herring Gull:
American Herring Gull: Larus smithsonianus smithsonianus
Vega Gull: Larus smithsonianus vegae

Lesser Black-backed Gull:
Western Lesser Black-backed Gull: Larus fuscus graellsii
Scandinavian Lesser Black-backed Gull: Larus fuscus intermedius
Baltic Gull: Larus fuscus fuscus

Iceland Gull:
Iceland Gull: Larus glaucoides glaucoides
Kumlien's Gull: Larus glaucoides kumlieni

Common Tern:
European Common Tern: Sterna hirundo hirundo
Siberian Common Tern: Sterna hirundo longipennis*

Black Tern:
European Black Tern: Chlidonias niger niger
American Black Tern: Chlidonias niger surinamensis

Sandwich Tern:
Sandwich Tern: Thalasseus sandvicensis sandvicensis
Cabot's Tern: Thalasseus sandvicensis acuflavidus
Cayenne Tern: Thalasseus sandvicensis eurygnatha


Common Guillemot:
Northern Guillemot: Uria aalge aalge
Southern Guillemot: Uria aalge albionis*
Arctic Guillemot: Uria aalge hyperborea*

Razorbill:
British Razorbill: Alca torda islandica
Northern Guillemot: Alca torda torda*

Black Guillemot:
Black Guillemot: Cepphus arcticus arcticus
Mandt's Guillemot: Cepphus arcticus mandtii

Little Auk:
Little Auk: Alle alle alle 
Franz Josef Land Little Auk: Alle alle polaris  

Common Ringed Plover:
British Common Ringed Plover: Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula
Greenland Common Ringed Plover: Charadrius hiaticula psammodroma
Tundra Common Ringed Plover: Charadrius hiaticula tundra

Red Knot:
Siberian Red Knot: Calidris canutus canutus
Greenland Red Knot: Calidris canutus islandica

Lesser Sand Plover:
Lesser Sand Plover: Charadrius mongolus atrifrons
Mongolian Sand Plover: Charadrius mongolus mongolus

Dunlin:
Tundra Dunlin: Calidris alpina alpina
Western Dunlin: Calidris alpina schinzii
Arctic Dunlin: Calidris alpina arctica
Hudsonian Dunlin: Calidris alpina hudsonia*

Common Redshank:
Western Common Redshank: Tringa totanus totanus
Icelandic Common Redshank: Tringa totanus robusta

Black-tailed Godwit:
Icelandic Black-tailed Godwit: Limosa limosa islandica
Continental Black-tailed Godwit: Limosa limosa limosa

Common Snipe:
Common Snipe: Gallinago gallinago gallinago
Faeroe Snipe: Gallinago gallinago faeroeensis

Red Grouse:
British Red Grouse: Lagopus lagopus lagopus
Irish Red Grouse: Lagopus lagopus hibernica

Rufous Turtle Dove:
Oriental Turtle Dove: Streptopelia orientalis orientalis
Western Rufous Turtle Dove: Streptopelia orientalis meena

Barn Owl:
Pale-breasted Barn Owl: Tyto alba alba
Dark-breasted Barn Owl: Tyto alba guttata

Hawk Owl:
European Hawk Owl: Surnia ulula ulula
American Hawk Owl: Surnia ulula caparoch

Rough-legged Buzzard:
Rough-legged Buzzard: Buteo lagopus lagopus
Rough-legged Hawk: Buteo lagopus sanctijohannis

Black Kite:
Western Black Kite: Milvus migrans migrans
Black-eared Kite: Milvus migrans lineatus

Northern Goshawk:
European Northern Goshawk: Accipiter gentilis gentilis
American Northern Goshawk: Accipiter gentilis atricapillus

Merlin:
European Merlin: Falco columbarius aesalon
Icelandic Merlin: Falco columbarius subaesalon

Peregrine:
Peregrine: Falco peregrinus peregrinus 
Tundra Peregrine: Falco peregrinus calidus
American Peregrine: Falco peregrinus tundrius*

Great Spotted Woodpecker:
British Great Spotted Woodpecker: Dendrocopos major anglicus
Northern European Woodpecker: Dendrocopos major major

Red-rumped Swallow:
European Red-rumped Swallow: Cecropis daurica daurica
Asian Red-rumped Swallow: Cecropis daurica japonica

Skylark:
Continental Skylark: Alauda arvensis arvensis
British Skylark: Alauda arvensis scotica
Oriental Skylark: Alauda arvensis intermedia

Meadow Pipit:
Hebridean Meadow Pipit: Anthus pratensis whistleri
Eurasian Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis pratensis

Rock Pipit:
British Rock Pipit: Anthus petrosus petrosus
Scandinavian Rock Pipit: Anthus petrosus littoralis

Buff-bellied Pipit:
American Buff-bellied Pipit: Anthus rubescens rubescens
Siberian Buff-bellied Pipit: Anthus rubescens japonicas*

White Wagtail:
White Wagtail: Motacilla alba alba
Pied Wagtail: Motacilla alba yarrelli
Amur Wagtail: Motacilla alba leucopsis
Masked Wagtail: Motacilla alba personata

Yellow Wagtail:
Yellow-headed Wagtail: Motacilla flava flavissima
Blue-headed Wagtail: Motacilla flava flava
Ashy-headed Wagtail: Motacilla flava cinereocapilla
Grey-headed Wagtail: Motacilla flava thnbergi
Black-headed Wagtail: Motacilla flava feldegg

Dipper:
British White-throated Dipper: Cinclus cinclus gularis
Irish White-throated Dipper: Cinclus cinclus hibernicus
Black-bellied/Continental Dipper: Cinclus cinclus cinclus

Dunnock:
British Dunnock: Prunella modularis occidentalis
Irish Dunnock: Prunella modularis hebridium
Continental Dunnock: Prunella modularis modularis

Winter Wren:
British/Irish Wren: Troglodytes troglodytes  indigenus
Continental Wren: Troglodytes troglodytes  troglodytes
Fair Isle Wren: Troglodytes troglodytes fridariensis
Shetland Wren: Troglodytes troglodytes zetlandicus
St Kilda Wren: Troglodytes troglodytes hirtensis
Hebridean Wren: Troglodytes troglodytes hebridium

Common Starling:
Common Starling: Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris
Shetland Starling: Sturnus vulgaris zetlandicus

Song Thrush:
Continental Song Thrush: Turdus philomelos philomelos
British Song Thrush: Turdus philomelos clarkie
Hebridean Song Thrush: Turdus philomelos hebridensis

Redwing:
Icelandic Redwing: Turdus iliacus coburni
Scandinavian Song thrush: Turdus iliacus iliacus

European Robin:
British/Irish Robin: Erithacus rubecula melophilus
Continental Robin: Erithacus rubecula rubecula

Common Nightingale:
Western Nightingale: Luscinia megarhynchos megarhynchos
Eastern Nightingale: Luscinia megarhynchos golzii

Rufous Scrub-robin:
Western Rufous Scrub-robin: Cercotrichas galactotes galactotes
Eastern Rufous Scrub-robin: Cercotrichas galactotes syriacus/familiaris

European Stonechat:
British/Irish Stonechat: Saxicola rubicola hibernans
Continental Stonechat: Saxicola rubicola rubicola

Siberian Stonechat:
Siberian Stonechat: Saxicola maurus maurus
Caspian Stonechat: Saxicola maurus variegatus

Black Redstart:
European Black Redstart: Phoenicurus ochruros gibraltariensis
British Black Redstart: Phoenicurus ochruros ochruros
Eastern Black Redstart: Phoenicurus ochruros phoenicuroides/xerophilus/rufiventris

Common Redstart:
Common Redstart: Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus
Ehrenberg’s Redstart: Phoenicurus phoenicurus samamisicus

Northern Wheatear:
Northern Wheatear: Oeonanthe oeonanthe oenanthe
Greenland Wheatear: Oeonanthe oenanthe leucorhoa

Black-eared Wheatear
Eastern Black-eared Wheatear: Oeonanthe hispanica melanoleuca
Western Black-eared Wheatear: Oeonanthe hispanica hispanica

Desert Wheatear:
Middle Eastern Desert Wheatear: Oenanthe deserti deserti*
Northern African Desert Wheatear: Oenanthe deserti homochroa*
Asian Desert Wheatear: Oenanthe deserti atrogularis*

Bluethroat:
Red-spotted Bluethroat: Luscinia svecica svecica
Eastern Bluethroat: Luscinia svecica magna
White-spotted Bluethroat: Luscinia svecica cyanecula

Eurasian Reed Warbler
Eurasian Reed Warbler: Acrocephalus scirpaceus scirpaceus
Caspian Reed Warbler: Acrocephalus scirpaceus fuscus

Lesser Whitethroat:
European Lesser Whitethroat: Sylvia curruca
Siberian Lesser Whitethroat: Sylvia curruca blythi
Central Asian Lesser Whitethroat: Sylvia curruca halimodendri
Desert Lesser Whitethroat: Sylvia curruca minula

Subalpine Warbler
Western Subalpine Warbler: Sylvia cantillans cantillans
Eastern Subalpine Warbler: Sylvia cantillans albistriata

Chiffchaff:
Common Chiffchaff: Phylloscopus collybita collybita
Scandinavian Chiffchaff: Phylloscopus collybita abietinus
Siberian Chiffchaff: Phylloscopus collybita tristis (includes’fulvescens’)

Willow Warbler:
European Willow Warbler: Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus
Scandinavian Willow Warbler: Phylloscopus trochilus acredula 

European Pied Flycatcher:
European Pied Flycatcher: Ficedula hypoleuca hypoleuca
Scandinavian Pied Flycatcher: Ficedula hypoleuca sibirica

Long-tailed Tit:
British/Irish Long-tailed Tit: Aegithalos caudatus rosaceus  
Northern Long-tailed Tit: Aegithalos caudatus caudatus 
Continental Long-tailed Tit: Aegithalos caudatus europaeus

Blue Tit:
British/Irish Blue Tit: Cyanistes caeruleus obscurus
Continental Blue Tit: Cyanistes caeruleus caeruleus

Great Tit:
British/Irish Great Tit: Parus major newtoni
Continental Great Tit: Parus major major

Coal Tit:
British Coal: Periparus ater britannicus
Continental Coal Tit: Periparus ater ater

Willow Tit:
British Willow Tit: Poecile montana kleinschmidti
Northern Willow Tit: Poecile montana borealis

Crested Tit:
Scottish Crest Tit: Lophophanes cristatus scoticus
Northern Crested Tit: Lophophanes cristatus cristatus
European Crested Tit: Lophophanes cristatus mitratus

Treecreeper:
British Treecreeper: Certhia familiaris Britannica
Northern Treecreeper: Certhia familiaris familiaris

Isabelline Shrike:
Isabelline Shrike: Lanius isabellinus isabellinus
Red-tailed Shrike: Lanius isabellinus phoenicuroides

Red-backed Shrike:
European Red-backed Shrike: Lanius collurio collurio
Eastern Red-backed Shrike: Lanius collurio kobylini

Woodchat Shrike:
Continental Woodchat Shrike: Lanius senator senator
Balearic Woodchat Shrike: Lanius senator badius

Spotted Nutcracker:
Slender-billed Spotted Nutcracker: Nucifraga caryocatactes macrorhynchos
Thick-billed Spotted Nutcracker: Nucifraga caryocatactes caryocatactes

Western Jackdaw:
Western Jackdaw: Corvus monedula spermologus
Nordic Jackdaw: Corvus monedula monedula

Eurasian Jay:
British Jay: Garrulus glandarius rufitergum
Scottish Jay: Garrulus glandarius caledonicus
Irish Jay: Garrulus glandarius hibernicus
Northern Jay: Garrulus glandarius glandarius

Eurasian Bullfinch:
British/Irish Bullfinch: Pyrrhula pyrrhula pileata
Northern Bulfinch: Pyrrhula pyrrhula pyrrhula 
Continental Bullfinch:Pyrrhula pyrrhula europoea

Common Chaffinch:
British Chaffinch: Fringilla coelebs gengleri
Continental Chaffinch: Fringilla coelebs coelebs

European Greenfinch:
British/Irish Greenfinch: Chloris chloris harrisoni
Scottish Greenfinch: Chloris chloris chloris

European Goldfinch:
British Goldfinch: Carduelis carduelis britannica
Continental Goldfinch: Carduelis carduelis carduelis

Linnet:
Linnet: Linaria cannabina cannabina
Scottish Linnet: Linaria cannabina autochthoa

Twite:
British/Irish Twite: Linaria flaviorostris pipilans
Hebridean Twite: Linaria flaviorostris bensonorum
Scandinavian Twite: Linaria flaviorostris flaviorostris

Common Redpoll:
Common Redpoll: Carduelis flammea flammea
Lesser Redpoll: Carduelis flammea cabaret
Greenland Redpoll: Carduelis flammea rostrata
Iceland Redpoll: Carduelis flammea islandica

Arctic Redpoll:
Hornemann's Arctic Redpoll: Carduelis hornemanni hornemanni
Coues's Arctic Redpoll: Carduelis hornemanni exilipes

White-crowned Sparrow:
White-crowned Sparrow: Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys
Gambel’s White-crowned Sparrow: Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii

Snow Bunting:
Icelandic Snow Bunting: Plectrophenax nivalis insulae
Scandinavian Snow Bunting: Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis
Siberian Snow Bunting: Plectrophenax nivalis vlasowae

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